The nation’s national debt amounted to PS130,000,000 after Britain won the French & Indian War. Unfair treatment by the British Parliament during this time fueled citizens’ discontent. While the Stamp Act was able to help England recover from the French and Indian wars, it also removed citizens’ rights by creating unnecessary taxes that had no known purpose. There was instant outrage. The Stamp Act had been opposed by various political groups, including the Sons of Liberty secret group and the Virginia legislature. The Stamp Act was still in place on November 1, 1765 after nine colonies sent representatives. The arrival stamp prompted colonists to seek violence and economic revenge. The Stamp Act was a catalyst for the American Revolution. It allowed colonists to see the abuses of British power. The stamp act enabled the colonies to come together for a common cause and eventually overthrow British government. It was the discovery of Bernard’s letters that made the colonist believe that Britain was using its power for the benefit of the crown rather than the colonists.
“Francis Bernard was the governor of colonial Massachusetts between 1760 and 1771. He was a key actor in the American Revolution’s birth.” Bernard was made governor of Massachusetts by his connections at the Colonial Office in late 1759. Bernard was a controversial figure. He undoubtedly owes his achievements in colonies to less demonstrated merit than to her cousin, second Viscount Barrington. He was accused of aggressively seeking customs violations in order to increase his income by those who challenged him. “The letters were sent from November 1 through December 5,1768. They criticize Boston and its Council for not cooperating with Governor Bernard, General Gage and other officials in quartering the regiments who arrived. Bernard strongly suggested that the Massachusetts charter was amended to make more of the Crown’s dependency on it. People believed Bernard intentionally misrepresented political conditions in order to convince authorities in England to send troops over to the U.S. for his governing style. The Massachusetts House of Representatives approved his recall after his term as governor. Bernard’s letters as well as other incidental papers offer insight into the personalities, controversies, and circumstances that made Boston hostile during the preRevolutionary period. “Francis Bernard was governor of Massachusetts between 1760 and 1769. He was among the most unpopular royal servants of America.” Otis’s friend Samuel Adams was the most prominent of Boston’s politicians. Samuel’s cousin John was a promising lawyer who would become the next U.S. president. Their belief, like other patriots was that the movement to American self-determination began under Bernard’s administration in 1760-1771. It was during this period that colonists opposed reforming trade laws and the introduction and implementation of parliamentary taxes. The letter was written by Francis Bernard. Bernard’s history shows us who was allowed to take charge and who was signing the laws. Sir Francis evidently took advantage of his position. This led colonists to dislike the government and create a situation that is seen in the letter. Thomas Hutchinson sees Francis Bernard warning Thomas Hutchinson about the attacks on authority homes. Because of his background, we can see the letter from the perspective of the colonists.
The conflict over how Great Britain was administering colonies began with the Boston Massacre. It was a dispute about how colonies wanted to be treated. Crowns administration was showing that Americans had to answer to Parliament. The Americans believed they had all rights, and therefore stormed the governor’s houses. Sir Francis Bernard warns his fellow Englishmen by writing about this situation. However, the British believed wholeheartedly that the colonies were meant to be used and operated in a way that was most favorable for the Crown and Parliament.
The colonists’ ideology is displayed in the American Revolution’s rallying cry, “No Tax collection without representation.” Another example of colonists having a shared belief and common goal is this battle cry.
The revolution was also influenced by the geography and location of the colonies, as the purpose of immigrating from Britain to America was to escape the Crown. The colonies became physically isolated from the Crown and Parliament, and it was hard for colonists to feel a sense freedom and independence. The majority of colonists were eager to colonize new worlds and had a thirst for equal and better opportunities. A lot of colonists had also wished to see reform in their corrupted Government. Colonists were able to see that colonial assemblies existed and believed they were free from the crown. These colonial groups were allowed to collect money and to pass laws. Bernard soon sent troops to Massachusetts. In a very short time, the British Armed forces made their presence well-known. This angered the colonists. The British Army’s arrival was considered insulting to the colonists as well as their colonial government. The arrival of an once-controlling body stirred the colony, which was sufficient to start, build, and finish the American Revolution.
Colonists were forced to deal with political disputes and corruption again as new realities became established. This corruption was demonstrated in 1769 when Alexander McDougall, who was accused of slandering the parliament’s authority over his book ‘To The Betrayed Inhabitants of New York City and Colony of New York’, was taken into custody. The British set up rules to suppress the protesters’ morale and took McDougall into detention. John Adams provided protection for the British and made changes to the rules.
All officers who had been accused of an offense in the colonies would then be sent to England instead of appearing at court in the colony. The English would have fewer witnesses from overseas to present their testimony and receipts. This resulted in fewer Englishmen being convicted and less of them being convicted. Another indicator of how corrupt the justice system was was that colonists lost the right to jury trials and were replaced by verdicts and punishments given only by colonial judges. After the British task force arrived, colonial authorities lost control over this area. They were aware that the judges were biased and paid. Many colonists were denied the right to fair trials by juries of their peers.
This letter shows how Sir Francis Bernard warned other political leaders about the imminent rebellion. This letter was meant to show us how the idea and guarantee rights of freedom were created at the time the colonies were established. After getting fed up with unfair treatment, colonists began to question their government’s solidity. These letters would not have been available to colonists without them learning the real purpose behind the rules and taxes. This is how the colonists started the American revolution and the fight for independence from the Crown. The letter shows us how Americans reacted to an unjust and corrupt government. It also shows how Americans lost class and wealth during this period to be able to have a life free of manipulative, controlling governments.